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JSLS. 1997 Jan-Mar;1(1):29-35.

Functional MR imaging of the porcine kidney: physiologic changes of prolonged pneumoperitoneum.



Increased intraabdominal pressure (IPA) during laparoscopy has been associated with decreased urine output. The purpose of this study was to use a noninvasive MRI technique to measure renal vessel flow velocity and change in differential renal medulla and cortex perfusion during pneumoperitoneum.


Six female farm pigs underwent general endotracheal anesthesia and dynamic imaging following left ventricular (LV) injection of Gd-DTPA, utilizing a dual echo gradient echo sequence. MRI was repeated after three hours of continuous 15 mm Hg pneumoperitoneum in three study pigs and after three hours of monitored general anesthesia without pneumoperitoneum in three control pigs. Renal artery and renal vein flow velocities were calculated using cine phase-contrast technique. Renal perfusion was independently measured by LV injection of radiolabelled microspheres.


There was a decrease in mean renal vein flow velocity in the pneumoperitoneum group as compared to the control group. During pneumoperitoneum there was a similar percentage reduction in the perfusion of the cortex (-28%) and medulla (-31%); this corresponded with a decreased urine output. In addition, radiolabelled microspheres corroborated the similar decrease in both cortical and medullary perfusion rates during pneumoperitoneum.


Prolonged IAP is associated with a decrease in renal vein flow velocity and urine output. There is a similar decrease in the renal medulla and cortex perfusion rates during pneumoperitoneum of 15 mm Hg.

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