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Plant Physiol. 1998 Dec;118(4):1447-54.

Direct measurement of calcium transport across chloroplast inner-envelope vesicles

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  • 1Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218-2685, USA.


The initial rate of Ca2+ movement across the inner-envelope membrane of pea (Pisum sativum L.) chloroplasts was directly measured by stopped-flow spectrofluorometry using membrane vesicles loaded with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorophore fura-2. Calibration of fura-2 fluorescence was achieved by combining a ratiometric method with Ca2+-selective minielectrodes to determine pCa values. The initial rate of Ca2+ influx in predominantly right-side-out inner-envelope membrane vesicles was greater than that in largely inside-out vesicles. Ca2+ movement was stimulated by an inwardly directed electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane vesicles, an effect that was diminished by the addition of valinomycin in the presence of K+. In addition, Ca2+ was shown to move across the membrane vesicles in the presence of a K+ diffusion potential gradient. The potential-stimulated rate of Ca2+ transport was slightly inhibited by diltiazem and greatly inhibited by ruthenium red. Other pharmacological agents such as LaCl3, verapamil, and nifedipine had little or no effect. These results indicate that Ca2+ transport across the chloroplast inner envelope can occur by a potential-stimulated uniport mechanism.

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