Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Mediators Inflamm. 1998;7(2):69-72.

Serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in non-pregnant women, during pregnancy, labour and abortion.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biology, University of Crete, Immunology Centre for Pregnancy, Heraklion, Greece.


Disturbance of the cytokine equilibrium has been accused for many pathological disorders. Microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, graft rejection have been correlated to over- or under-production of specific cytokines which are produced as responder molecules to the various immune stimuli. The sole naturally occurring immune reaction in the organism is developed during the gestational period where, despite the presence of a semi-allogeneic graft, maternal immunoreactivity is driven to support fetal growth. The successful embryo development has been attributed to the important intervention of cytokines where some have been characterized as indispensable and others deleterious to fetal growth. However, the physiological levels of many factors during the gestational process have not been determined. Thus, in the present study we have measured and established the values of IL-1alpha, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during all phases of human pregnancy (first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, labour, abortions of the first trimester) as well as in the non-pregnant control state. This is an attempt to assess serum protein concentrations and present the physiological levels of these cytokines at certain time intervals providing thus a diagnostic advantage in pregnancy cases where the mother cannot immunologically support the fetus. Exploitation of this knowledge and further research may be useful for therapeutic interventions in the future.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Hindawi Publishing Corporation Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk