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J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Nov 15;32(6):1596-602.

Systolic ejection murmurs in the era of modern cardiology: what do we really know?


The basics of pulsatile ejection dynamics are reviewed in order to clarify the relationships among left ventricular and aortic pressures, intra-left ventricular and aortic flow velocities, and cardiovascular sound. The principles of turbulent flow are examined using the Reynolds number concept, and the evidence for cause-and-effect relationships between turbulent flow and murmur generation is presented. Examples of hemodynamics and phonocardiography are given for normal subjects and are compared to patients with aortic stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The concepts presented are used to analyze the results of a new study suggesting increased intraventricular velocities as a new cause for systolic murmurs in adults.

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