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Structure. 1998 Nov 15;6(11):1407-18.

Glycerol kinase from Escherichia coli and an Ala65-->Thr mutant: the crystal structures reveal conformational changes with implications for allosteric regulation.

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  • 1Central Laboratories for Key Technology 1 - 13-5 Fukuura Kanazawa Yokohama 236, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Glycerol kinase (GK) from Escherichia coli is a velocity-modulated (V system) enzyme that has three allosteric effectors with independent mechanisms: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP); the phosphocarrier protein IIAGlc; and adenosine nucleotides. The enzyme exists in solution as functional dimers that associate reversibly to form tetramers. GK is a member of a superfamily of ATPases that share a common ATPase domain and are thought to undergo a large conformational change as an intrinsic step in their catalytic cycle. Members of this family include actin, hexokinase and the heat shock protein hsc70.

RESULTS:

We report here the crystal structures of GK and a mutant of GK (Ala65-->Thr) in complex with glycerol and ADP. Crystals of both enzymes contain the same 222 symmetric tetramer. The functional dimer is identical to that described previously for the IIAGlc-GK complex structure. The tetramer interface is significantly different, however, with a relative 22.3 degrees rotation and 6.34 A translation of one functional dimer. The overall monomer structure is unchanged except for two regions: the IIAGlc-binding site undergoes a structural rearrangement and residues 230-236 become ordered and bind orthophosphate at the tetramer interface. We also report the structure of a second mutant of GK (IIe474-->Asp) in complex with IIAGlc; this complex crystallized isomorphously to the wild type IIAGlc-GK complex. Site-directed mutants of GK with substitutions at the IIAGlc-binding site show significantly altered kinetic and regulatory properties, suggesting that the conformation of the binding site is linked to the regulation of activity.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that the new tetramer structure presented here is an inactive form of the physiologically relevant tetramer. The structure and location of the orthophosphate-binding site is consistent with it being part of the FBP-binding site. Mutational analysis and the structure of the IIAGlc-GK(IIe474-->Asp) complex suggest the conformational transition of the IIAGlc-binding site to be an essential aspect of IIAGlc regulation.

PMID:
9817843
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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