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J Immunol. 1998 Nov 1;161(9):4736-44.

p48/STAT-1alpha-containing complexes play a predominant role in induction of IFN-gamma-inducible protein, 10 kDa (IP-10) by IFN-gamma alone or in synergy with TNF-alpha.

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  • 1Department of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA.


Human IFN-gamma-inducible protein, 10 kDa (hIP-10) and murine IP-10 (mIP-10) genes are induced by IFN-gamma alone, and synergistically induced by TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Upstream regions of the human and murine genes contain conserved regulatory motifs, including an IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE), which governs response of the mIP-10 gene to IFN-gamma. Trans-acting factors mediating the IFN-gamma response via ISRE remain incompletely defined. We examined ISRE-binding factors in the regulation of the hIP-10 gene. The requirement of p48 for hIP-10 induction by IFN-gamma, with or without TNF-alpha, was demonstrated using p48-deficient U2A cells. An hIP-10 promoter-reporter mutant (mISRE3) that was relatively deficient for binding a related factor, IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) but competent for binding p48, was induced as well as the wild-type hIP-10 promoter, supporting the interpretation that p48 played a necessary and sufficient role in hIP-10 transcription. Genomic in vivo footprinting revealed IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha-inducible binding at the ISRE consistent with the presence of p48 and associated factors, but not with IRF-1. Induction of hIP-10 by TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma also required NFkappaB binding sites, which were protected in vivo and bound p65 homodimeric NFkappaB in vitro. These results documented the essential role of p48 (complexed with STAT-1alpha) for induction and sustained transcription of the IP-10 gene, strongly suggesting that IRF-1 is not required for IP-10 induction by these inflammatory cytokines.

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