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Genes Dev. 1998 Oct 15;12(20):3156-61.

Fgf-10 is required for both limb and lung development and exhibits striking functional similarity to Drosophila branchless.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Genetics, Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320-1789 USA.


Fgf-10-deficient mice (Fgf-10(-/-)) were generated to determine the role(s) of Fgf-10 in vertebrate development. Limb bud initiation was abolished in Fgf-10(-/-) mice. Strikingly, Fgf-10(-/-) fetuses continued to develop until birth, despite the complete absence of both fore- and hindlimbs. Fgf-10 is necessary for apical ectodermal ridge (AER) formation and acts epistatically upstream of Fgf-8, the earliest known AER marker in mice. Fgf-10(-/-) mice exhibited perinatal lethality associated with complete absence of lungs. Although tracheal development was normal, main-stem bronchial formation, as well as all subsequent pulmonary branching morphogenesis, was completely disrupted. The pulmonary phenotype of Fgf-10(-/-) mice is strikingly similar to that of the Drosophila mutant branchless, an Fgf homolog.

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