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Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998 Sep 15;23(18):1946-55; discussion 1955-6.

Biomechanical comparison of C1-C2 posterior fixations. Cable, graft, and screw combinations.

Author information

  • 1Dokuz Eyl├╝l University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Balcova Izmir, Turkey.

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN:

Four combinations of cable-graft-screw fixation at C1-C2 were compared biomechanically in vitro using nondestructive flexibility testing. Each specimen was instrumented successively using each fixation combination.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the relative amounts of movement at C1-C2 after instrumentation with various combinations of one or two transarticular screws and a posterior cable-secured graft. Also to determine the role of each component of the construct in resisting different types of loading.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:

Spinal stiffness increases after instrumentation with two transarticular screws plus a posterior wire-graft compared with a wire-graft alone. Other C1-C2 cable-graft-screw combinations have not been tested.

METHODS:

Eight human cadaveric occiput-C3 specimens were loaded nondestructively with pure moments, and nonconstrained motion at C1-C2 was measured. The instrumented states tested were a C1-C2 interposition graft attached with multistranded cable; a cable-graft plus one transarticular screw; two transarticular screws alone; and a cable-graft plus two transarticular screws.

RESULTS:

The transarticular screws prevented lateral bending and axial rotation better than the posterior cable-graft. The cable-graft prevented flexion and extension better than the screws. Increasing the number of fixation points often significantly decreased the rotation and translation (paired t test; P < 0.05). Axes of rotation shifted from their normal location toward the hardware.

CONCLUSIONS:

It is mechanically advantageous to include as many fixation points as possible when atlantoaxial instability is treated surgically.

PMID:
9779526
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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