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Ann Intern Med. 1998 Oct 1;129(7):517-24.

Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study.

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  • 1Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

High intake of folate may reduce risk for colon cancer, but the dosage and duration relations and the impact of dietary compared with supplementary sources are not well understood.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the relation between folate intake and incidence of colon cancer.

DESIGN:

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING:

88,756 women from the Nurses' Health Study who were free of cancer in 1980 and provided updated assessments of diet, including multivitamin supplement use, from 1980 to 1994.

PATIENTS:

442 women with new cases of colon cancer.

MEASUREMENTS:

Multivariate relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs for colon cancer in relation to energy-adjusted folate intake.

RESULTS:

Higher energy-adjusted folate intake in 1980 was related to a lower risk for colon cancer (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.93] for intake > 400 microg/d compared with intake < or = 200 microg/d) after controlling for age; family history of colorectal cancer; aspirin use; smoking; body mass; physical activity; and intakes of red meat, alcohol, methionine, and fiber. When intake of vitamins A, C, D, and E and intake of calcium were also controlled for, results were similar. Women who used multivitamins containing folic acid had no benefit with respect to colon cancer after 4 years of use (RR, 1.02) and had only nonsignificant risk reductions after 5 to 9 (RR, 0.83) or 10 to 14 years of use (RR, 0.80). After 15 years of use, however, risk was markedly lower (RR, 0.25 [CI, 0.13 to 0.51]), representing 15 instead of 68 new cases of colon cancer per 10,000 women 55 to 69 years of age. Folate from dietary sources alone was related to a modest reduction in risk for colon cancer, and the benefit of long-term multivitamin use was present across all levels of dietary intakes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Long-term use of multivitamins may substantially reduce risk for colon cancer. This effect may be related to the folic acid contained in multivitamins.

Comment in

  • ACP J Club. 1999 Mar-Apr;130(2):51.
  • A role for multivitamins in infection? [Ann Intern Med. 2003]
PMID:
9758570
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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