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Am J Hypertens. 1998 Sep;11(9):1048-55.

Strict dietary sodium reduction worsens insulin sensitivity by increasing sympathetic nervous activity in patients with primary hypertension.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation Kanto Teishin Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

To assess the effects of sodium reduction on insulin sensitivity in hypertension, we examined the change of insulin sensitivity after two degrees of dietary sodium restriction by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp method in 12 subjects with primary hypertension. A controlled period of 1 week, when the subjects were taking a normal sodium diet, was followed by a randomized crossover study in which the subjects were placed on either moderate or strict reduced sodium diets for 1 week. The result of the 1-week moderate dietary sodium reduction from 200 to 100 mmol/day showed significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 6.5 and 5.0 mm Hg, respectively. Strict dietary sodium reduction to 30 mmol/day for 1 week resulted in no further decrease in blood pressure, but it increased plasma insulin by 40.6% without changing plasma glucose. There were no changes in glucose infusion rate (GIR) or insulin sensitivity index (ISI), which is a measure of GIR divided by plasma insulin, after moderate dietary sodium reduction. However, strict dietary sodium reduction induced decreases in GIR by 19.8% (from 1318+/-189 to 1057+/-173 micromol/m2/ min; P < .01), and ISI by 20.5% (from 16.6+/-2.1 to 13.2+/-1.9 micromol/m2/min/microU/mL; P < .01) with a paralleled increase of plasma norepinephrine by 90.0% (from 150.5+/-61.6 to 287.3+/-114.9 pg/mL; P < .01). These results indicate that dietary sodium restriction leads to a deterioration of insulin sensitivity when plasma norepinephrine levels increase, and suggest that moderate dietary sodium reduction may lower blood pressure without a distinct adverse effect on glucose metabolism in subjects with primary hypertension.

PMID:
9752889
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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