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J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 2;273(40):26014-25.

RGSZ1, a Gz-selective RGS protein in brain. Structure, membrane association, regulation by Galphaz phosphorylation, and relationship to a Gz gtpase-activating protein subfamily.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235-9041, USA.


We cloned the cDNA for human RGSZ1, the major Gz-selective GTPase-activating protein (GAP) in brain (Wang, J., Tu, Y., Woodson, J., Song, X., and Ross, E. M. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 5732-5740) and a member of the RGS family of G protein GAPs. Its sequence is 83% identical to RET-RGS1 (except its N-terminal extension) and 56% identical to GAIP. Purified, recombinant RGSZ1, RET-RGS1, and GAIP each accelerated the hydrolysis of Galphaz-GTP over 400-fold with Km values of approximately 2 nM. RGSZ1 was 100-fold selective for Galphaz over Galphai, unusually specific among RGS proteins. Other enzymological properties of RGSZ1, brain Gz GAP, and RET-RGS1 were identical; GAIP differed only in Mg2+ dependence and in its slightly lower selectivity for Galphaz. RGSZ1, RET-RGS1, and GAIP thus define a subfamily of Gz GAPs within the RGS proteins. RGSZ1 has no obvious membrane-spanning region but is tightly membrane-bound in brain. Its regulatory activity in membranes depends on stable bilayer association. When co-reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles with Gz and m2 muscarinic receptors, RGSZ1 increased agonist-stimulated GTPase >15-fold with EC50 <12 nM, but RGSZ1 added to the vesicle suspension was <0.1% as active. RGSZ1, RET-RGS1, and GAIP share a cysteine string sequence, perhaps targeting them to secretory vesicles and allowing them to participate in the proposed control of secretion by Gz. Phosphorylation of Galphaz by protein kinase C inhibited the GAP activity of RGSZ1 and other RGS proteins, providing a mechanism for potentiation of Gz signaling by protein kinase C.

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