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J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32 Suppl 2:S18-23.

New evidence on the prevention of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.

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  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis 38105, USA.

Abstract

Recent trials in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes reveal important differences in the risk for major cardiovascular events when individual agents are compared. In the Fosinopril Amlodipine Cardiovascular Events Trial (FACET), 380 patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes were randomized to fosinopril or amlodipine and followed for up to 3.5 years to assess effects on serum lipids. Although both agents effectively controlled blood pressure, amlodipine caused a significantly greater decrease in systolic pressure. At the end of the trial, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA1c, serum glucose, plasma insulin, serum creatinine, and microalbuminuria were similar in both groups. The patients randomized to fosinopril were significantly less likely to experience the prospectively defined combined outcome of acute myocardial infarction (MI), hospitalized angina, or stroke compared to those randomized to amlodipine (RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.95). In the Appropriate Blood pressure Control in Diabetes (ABCD) trial, 470 patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes who were randomized to long-acting nisoldipine had an adjusted sevenfold increased risk for acute MI compared to those randomized to enalapril (RR 7.0; 95% CI 2.3-21.4). In the Multicenter Isradipine Diuretic Atherosclerosis Study (MIDAS) trial, the patients with hypertension and above the median of HbA1c (> or =6.7%) randomized to isradipine had a threefold increased risk for major cardiovascular events compared to those randomized to hydrochlorothiazide (RR 2.81; 95% CI 1.09-7.26). These findings are supported by several observational studies. Therefore, evidence is emerging that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and low-dose diuretics may be more effective than calcium antagonists for prevention of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with diabetes or impaired glucose control.

PMID:
9736437
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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