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Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Sep;18(9):5435-44.

Id2 promotes apoptosis by a novel mechanism independent of dimerization to basic helix-loop-helix factors.

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  • 1Preuss Laboratory for Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0520, USA.


Members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of Id proteins have demonstrated roles in the regulation of differentiation and cell proliferation. Id proteins inhibit differentiation by HLH-mediated heterodimerization with basic HLH transcription factors. This blocks their sequence-specific binding to DNA and activation of target genes that are often expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Id proteins can also act as positive regulators of cell proliferation. The different mechanisms proposed for Id-mediated promotion of entry into S phase also involve HLH-mediated interactions affecting regulators of the G1/S transition. We have found that Id2 augments apoptosis in both interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent 32D.3 myeloid progenitors and U2OS osteosarcoma cells. We could not detect a similar activity for Id3. In contrast to the effects of Id2 on differentiation and cell proliferation, Id2-mediated apoptosis is independent of HLH-mediated dimerization. The ability of Id2 to promote cell death resides in its N-terminal region and is associated with the enhanced expression of a known component of the programmed cell death pathway, the proapoptotic gene BAX.

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