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Science. 1998 Aug 14;281(5379):955-61.

The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes

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  • 1The author is in the Department of Research and Development, Nichia Chemical Industries, 491 Oka, Kaminaka, Anan, Tokushima 774, Japan. E-mail:


REVIEW High-efficiency light-emitting diodes emitting amber, green, blue, and ultraviolet light have been obtained through the use of an InGaN active layer instead of a GaN active layer. The localized energy states caused by In composition fluctuation in the InGaN active layer are related to the high efficiency of the InGaN-based emitting devices. The blue and green InGaN quantum-well structure light-emitting diodes with luminous efficiencies of 5 and 30 lumens per watt, respectively, can be made despite the large number of threading dislocations (1 x 10(8) to 1 x 10(12) cm-2). Epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN on sapphire reduces the number of threading dislocations originating from the interface of the GaN epilayer with the sapphire substrate. InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes formed on the GaN layer above the SiO2 mask area can have a lifetime of more than 10,000 hours. Dislocations increase the threshold current density of the laser diodes.

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