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Front Biosci. 1998 Aug 6;3:d887-912.

RAS pathways to cell cycle control and cell transformation.

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  • 1Department of Pathology and Kaplan Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York University Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, USA.


Ras genes are among the most frequently activated oncogenes in cancer. The corresponding protooncogenes are proteins expressed in the majority of tissues in mammals and have a signal transduction activity. Ras proteins interact with a wide spectrum of regulators and downstream effectors producing different cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. This review deals with the most recent advances on the role of Ras in the signal transduction pathway from external signals to the cell cycle and gene expression control. We specially address the new developments on the effect of Ras activation in the regulation of different molecules driving the cell cycle progression. Both positive and negative regulators of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), cyclins and CDK inhibitors, are targets of Ras, giving rise to different effects in the cell cycle progression. These Ras-mediated interactions are an extraordinary example of the complexity of the signal transduction networks and the diversity of pathways used by Ras to propagate molecular signals.

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