Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1998 Jun;21(2):309-23.

Psychoneuroendocrinology of depression. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.


Women are more susceptible than men to depression, particularly during periods of rapid fluctuation of gonadal hormones, such as premenstrually, postpartum, and during the climacteric. This review summarizes the evidence for the association of depression with abnormalities in reproductive hormones. Although there are similarities in stress hormones changes between depressed women and women with stress-related amenorrhea, no abnormalities in LH activity have been documented in depression. Similarly no abnormalities in LH, estradiol, or progesterone have been documented in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), although complete elimination of monthly cycling with leuprolide improves mood. Some studies have suggested beneficial effects of estrogen on mood in postmenopausal women but as yet there have been no adequately controlled studies of estrogen treatment of either premenopausal or postmenopausal women.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk