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J Nucl Med. 1998 Jul;39(7):1237-42.

Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy.

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  • 1Clinic of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Pathology, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.

Abstract

Salivary gland impairment after high-dose radioiodine treatment is well recognized. Because differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, reduction of long-term side effects is important. This study investigated the radioprotective effects of amifostine in animals and humans receiving high-dose radioiodine therapy.

METHODS:

Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in five rabbits before and up to 3 mo after high-dose radioiodine therapy applying 1 GBq 131I. Three animals received 200 mg/kg amifostine before high-dose radioiodine therapy, and two served as controls. All animals were examined histopathologically. Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy also was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer before and 3 mo after high-dose radioiodine therapy with 6 GBq 131I. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine before high-dose radioiodine therapy, and nine served as controls.

RESULTS:

In two control rabbits, high-dose radioiodine therapy significantly reduced parenchymal function by 63% and 46% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. In contrast, there was no significant decrease in parenchymal function in amifostine-treated animals. Histopathologically, lipomatosis was observed in control animals but was negligible in amifostine-treated animals. Similar findings were observed in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. In nine control patients, high-dose radioiodine therapy significantly (p < 0.01) reduced parenchymal function by 37% and 31% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Three patients exhibited Grade I (World Health Organization) xerostomia. In contrast, there was no significant decrease in parenchymal function in amifostine-treated patients and no incidence of xerostomia.

CONCLUSION:

Parenchymal damage in salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine therapy can be reduced significantly by amifostine. This may increase the quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

PMID:
9669401
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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