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Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998 Jun;22(4):485-93.

Influence of gender and socio-economic status on dietary patterns and nutrient intakes in 18-year-old Australians.

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  • 1University Department of Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Western Australia.

Abstract

This study used two-day diet records to examine dietary behaviours in 504 Australian 18 year-olds in relation to gender, socio-economic status (SES) and national dietary guidelines. Fat intake exceeded 30% of energy in about 80% of subjects and was greater than 40% in about one-quarter. Saturated fat provided more than 10% of dietary energy in more than 90% of participants; less than 1% achieved a polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio of at least one. The major food groups contributing to fat intake were convenience foods (32% in men, 28% in women) and meat (27% in men, 25% in women). Fibre intake was less than 30 g/day in 93% of women and 77% of men. Intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins C and A, as a ratio of energy consumption, were greater in women than men, while sodium intake was significantly higher in men. Convenience foods were the greatest contributors to sodium intake (27% in men, 22% in women) followed by meat, bread, and soups and sauces. Greater consumption of cereals, fruit, vegetables and low-fat foods in young women of higher SES was reflected in their nutrient profile with higher intake of fibre and vitamin C and lower intake of fat. Men ate more cereals, meat and sugary foods and less fruit, vegetables and low-fat foods. Only 2.5% of men and 4.1% of women conformed with the health promotion message, widely publicised locally, to eat two fruits and five vegetables daily. Not eating breakfast was associated with lower calcium intake in men and women, and lower iron and fibre in take in women. Achieving behavioural changes in young adults must take into account differences in dietary behaviour related to gender and SES.

PMID:
9659778
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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