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Am J Prev Med. 1998 Jul;15(1):1-8.

Immunogenicity of hepatitis B Vaccines. Implications for persons at occupational risk of hepatitis B virus infection.

Author information

  • 1Hepatitis Branch World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Research and Reference in Viral Hepatitis, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess risk factors for decreased immunogenicity among adults vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine and to determine the importance of differences in immunogenicity between vaccines among health care workers (HCWs).

DESIGN:

Randomized clinical trial and decision analysis.

PARTICIPANTS:

HCSw.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Development of seroprotective levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and the number of expected chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections associated with lack of protection.

RESULTS:

Overall, 88% of HCWs developed seroprotection. Risk factors associated with failure to develop seroprotection included increasing age, obesity, smoking and male gender (P < .05). Presence of a chronic disease was associated with lack of seroprotection only among persons > or = 40 years of age (P < .05). The two vaccines studied differed in their overall seroprotection rates (90% vs. 86%; P < .05), however, this difference was restricted to persons > or = 40 years of age (87% vs. 81%; P < .01). Among HCWs > or = 40 years of age, the decision analysis found 44 (0.34/100,000 person-years) excess chronic HBV infections over the working life of the cohort associated with use of the less immunogenic vaccine compared to the other.

CONCLUSIONS:

He patitis B vaccines are highly immunogenic, but have decreased immunogenicity associated with increasing age, obesity, smoking, and male gender; and among older adults, the presence of a chronic disease. One of the two available vaccines is more immunogenic among older adults; however, this finding has little clinical or public health importance. Hepatitis B vaccines should be administered to persons at occupational risk for HBV infection early in their career, preferably while they are still in their training.

Comment in

PMID:
9651632
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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