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J Comp Psychol. 1998 Jun;112(2):119-26.

Use of experimenter-given cues during object-choice tasks by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and human infants (Homo sapiens).

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Emory University, USA. itakura@oita-nhs.ac.jp


In a series of experiments, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and human infants (Homo sapiens) were investigated as to whether they used experimenter-given cues when responding to object-choice tasks. Five conditions were used in different phases: the experimenter tapping on the correct object, gazing plus pointing, gazing closely, gazing alone, and glancing without head orientation. The 3 subject species were able to use all of the experimenter-given cues, in contrast to previous reports of limited use of such cues by monkeys.

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