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Oncogene. 1998 May 14;16(19):2489-501.

Release of cell cycle constraints in mouse melanocytes by overexpressed mutant E2F1E132, but not by deletion of p16INK4A or p21WAF1/CIP1.

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  • 1Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

Abstract

Compared to normal melanocytes, melanoma cell lines exhibit overexpression of hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) or a marked decrease in, or lack of, expression of Rb. Hyperphosphorylation of Rb results in increased E2F-mediated transactivation of target genes and cell cycle progression. Using a combination of gene disruption and ectopic expression in growth factor-dependent mouse melanocytes, we studied the roles of E2F1 and the p16INK4A and p21WAF1/CIP1 CKIs (cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors) in the acquisition of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate)-independent growth in culture, a hallmark of melanomas. Surprisingly, melanocytes from p16INK4A- or p21WAF1/CIP1-null mice remained TPA-dependent, and disruption of p21WAF1/CIP1 accelerated cell death in the absence of this mitogen. Disruption of E2F1 had the most profound effect on melanocyte growth, resulting in a fourfold decrease in growth rate in the presence of TPA. Furthermore, enforced overexpression of the DNA-binding-defective E2F1E132 mutant conferred TPA-independence upon melanocytes and was associated with sequestration of Rb and constitutive expression of E2F1 target genes, including p21WAF1/CIP1. We conclude that neutralization of Rb by E2F1E132, but not the disruption of p16INK4A or p21WAF1/CIP1, resulted in the accumulation of free E2F and cell cycle progression. Thus, mechanisms other than the loss of p16INK4A or p21WAF1/CIP1 that activate E2F may play an important role in melanomas.

PMID:
9627115
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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