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Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998 Feb;22(1):67-72.

Measuring the impact of conjugate vaccines on invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infection in Western Australia.

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  • 1TVW Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, West Perth, Western Australia.


Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes serious infections in 26-59 per 100,000 non-Aboriginal Australian children under five years of age. Aboriginal children suffer much higher rates of infection (> or = 150 per 100,000), and at an earlier age, and have a greater risk of death and disability due to Hib infection. In 1992 and 1993, four conjugate Hib vaccines were introduced in Australia, and a nationally funded program of infant vaccination was begun in July 1993. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of Hib vaccination in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia using a population-based active surveillance system for non-Aboriginal children and a case control study for Aboriginal children. The incidence of invasive Hib disease in non-Aboriginal children fell from 30.9 per 100,000 before vaccination was available to 6.3 per 100,000 in the second year after its introduction. The vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 80 per cent for Aboriginal children (odds ratio 0.20, 95 per cent CI 0.01-2.76) and, after adjustment for confounders, 75 per cent (odds ratio 0.25, CI 0.02-3.66). Based on the adjusted value (75 per cent), and using a Bayesian approach, we estimate that the posterior probability was 0.55 that the true vaccine efficacy is greater than 70 per cent, and 0.69 that the efficacy is greater than 50 per cent. We conclude that Hib vaccination is effective in preventing invasive Hib disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Australia.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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