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Science. 1998 Apr 17;280(5362):425-7.

A monolithic photovoltaic-photoelectrochemical device for hydrogen production via water splitting

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  • 1National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401-3393, USA.


Direct water electrolysis was achieved with a novel, integrated, monolithic photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic design. This photoelectrochemical cell, which is voltage biased with an integrated photovoltaic device, splits water directly upon illumination; light is the only energy input. The hydrogen production efficiency of this system, based on the short-circuit current and the lower heating value of hydrogen, is 12.4 percent.

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