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Nat Biotechnol. 1998 Mar;16(3):253-7.

Viral sequences enable efficient and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in Xenopus.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0613, USA.

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  • Nat Biotechnol 1998 Mar;16(3):253-7.


Expression of transgenes within a single generation by direct DNA injection into vertebrate embryos has been plagued by inefficient and nonuniform gene expression. We report a novel strategy for efficient and stable expression of transgenes driven by both ubiquitous and tissue-specific promoters by direct DNA injection into developing Xenopus laevis embryos. This strategy involves flanking expression cassettes of interest with inverted terminal repeat sequences (ITRs) from adeno-associated virus. Our results suggest that the ITR strategy may be generally applicable to other systems, such as zebra fish and embryonic stem cells, and may enable tissue-specific expression of transgenes in problematic contexts.

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