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Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Feb;36(2):101-10.

Subchronic toxicity studies of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) in the rat and dog.

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  • 1Bio-Research Laboratories Ltd, Senneville, Quebec, Canada.


Preliminary short-term toxicity studies of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) in the dog demonstrated that addition of this additive to the diet was associated with an increase in liver size and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity with no evidence of pathological change by light microscopy. To determine the basis for these changes, a 12-week oral toxicity study of SAIB was conducted in the dog and a similar study was performed in the rat. SAIB was fed in the diet to groups of six beagle dogs of each sex at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0%. SAIB was also fed to groups of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex at levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%. In the rat study, in addition to routine toxicology parameters, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction was determined using a zoxazolamine hypnotic test, urinary ascorbic acid excretion and determination of hepatic carboxylesterase activity. Sodium phenobarbital was fed to groups of 20 rats of each sex at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage as a positive control for hepatic microsomal enzyme induction. In the dog study, routine toxicological tests were supplemented by tests for bromsulfophthalein (BSP) retention, histochemical staining of liver sections for glycogen, phosphorylase, succinate dehydrogenase, and acid and alkaline phosphatases. Levels of liver lipid, protein, glycogen and carboxylesterase activity were also determined. Electron microscopic examinations were made on liver sections from the dog study at the end of the 12-week SAIB feeding period and after a 2-week withdrawal period. Administration of SAIB to rats did not reveal evidence of any effect on hepatobiliary function, and there was no indication of microsomal enzyme induction. Body weight gain of male rats fed SAIB was decreased, probably as the result of decreased palatability of the diet; SAIB did not affect body weight gain in females. The changes observed in the dogs fed SAIB included increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity with no change in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase or lactic dehydrogenase activity and no change in serum electrolyte, serum protein, glucose or bilirubin levels. No haematological changes were observed. BSP retention was observed at all SAIB dose levels. There were no SAIB-related pathological changes in any organ when examined by light microscopy. Examination by electron microscope revealed dilatation of bile canaliculi and an increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum compared with controls. Histochemical studies also indicated increased enzyme activity of the bile canaliculi. The electron-microscope-revealed changes were completely reversed during a 2-week treatment withdrawal period. The dog study did not establish a no-effect level for changes in hepatobiliary function induced by feeding SAIB.

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