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Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Feb;26(2):341-5.

Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 years.

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  • 1Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC 20307-5100, USA.


Antibiotic resistance trends were examined for Shigella species, nontyphoidal Salmonella species, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), and Campylobacter species isolates from indigenous persons and travelers in Thailand for up to 15 years. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was found in >90% of Shigella and 40% of ETEC and nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates. Resistance to nalidixic acid was found in 97%-100% of Shigella dysenteriae 1 strains isolated between 1992 and 1995. Ciprofloxacin resistance was detected in 1% of ETEC isolates in 1994 and 1995 and in one of 349 nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates in 1995. Ciprofloxacin resistance among Campylobacter species increased from zero before 1991 to 84% in 1995 (P < .0001). Azithromycin resistance was found in 7%-15% of Campylobacter isolates in 1994 and 1995, as well as 15% of ETEC and 3% of Salmonella isolates in 1995. Enteric pathogens in Thailand have developed resistance to virtually all antibiotics routinely used in the treatment of diarrhea, as well as the newer fluoroquinolone and macrolide classes of drugs.

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