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Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1998 Feb;24(1):157-72.

Rheumatoid arthritis of the ankle and hindfoot.

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  • 1Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.


Rheumatoid arthritis frequently affects the hindfoot and ankle and may present a considerable source of dysfunction. Awareness of characteristic clinical and radiographic findings and other diagnostic modalities help the clinician to evaluate the progression of the disease and determine the best methods of management. A variety of nonoperative treatments may slow progression of deformities, improve function, and provide symptomatic relief. If these measures fail, surgical intervention, including soft-tissue procedures as well as a variety of arthrodesis techniques, can return patients to a more active lifestyle.

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