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Biochem J. 1998 Mar 15;330 ( Pt 3):1451-60.

The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade can either stimulate or inhibit DNA synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes depending upon whether its activation is acute/phasic or chronic.

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  • 1Department of Biology, 401 College Street, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA 23298-0058, USA.

Abstract

Bailie et al. [In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. (1992) 28A, 621-624] reported that primary cultures of rat hepatocytes possess low affinity binding sites for nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with a maximally effective concentration of NGF (20 ng/ml, 0.8 nM) caused acute phasic activation of Raf-1 and p42(MAPkinase), and a smaller sustained activation of B-Raf. The transient increase in Raf-1 and p42(MAPkinase) activity returned to baseline within approximately 30 min. NGF treatment of hepatocytes did not induce expression of cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor proteins, but instead stimulated cdk2 activity and increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. In contrast to hepatocytes, NGF treatment of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells caused large sustained activations of B-Raf and p42(MAPkinase), and a lower phasic activation of Raf-1. The sustained activations of B-Raf and p42(MAPkinase) were for more than 5 h. Treatment of PC12 cells with NGF increased p21(Cip1/WAF-1) expression, reduced cdk2 activity and inhibited DNA synthesis, the opposite to the effects of NGF treatment of hepatocytes. However when p42(MAPkinase) was chronically activated in hepatocytes, via infection with an inducible oestrogen receptor-Raf-1 fusion protein, expression of p21(Cip-1/WAF1) and p16(INK4a) cdk inhibitor proteins increased, cdk2 activity decreased, and DNA synthesis decreased. Equally, treatment of hepatocytes with 50 mM ethanol elevated the basal activity of p42(MAPkinase) and temporally extended the ability of NGF treatment to activate p42(MAPkinase). Ethanol and NGF co-treatment increased expression of p21(Cip-1/WAF1) and p16(INK4a) cdk inhibitor proteins and decreased hepatocyte DNA synthesis. These data demonstrate that NGF can cause either acute/phasic or sustained activation of the MAP kinase cascade in different cell types. Acute activation of the MAP kinase cascade correlated with increased DNA synthesis. In contrast, sustained activation of the MAP kinase cascade correlated with increased expression of cdk inhibitor proteins, a reduction in cdk activity, and an inhibition of DNA synthesis. These data suggest a general mechanism exists where acute activation of the MAP kinase cascade promotes G1 progression/S phase entry and that chronic activation of the MAP kinase cascade inhibits this process.

PMID:
9494119
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1219295
Free PMC Article
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