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Appl Nurs Res. 1997 Nov;10(4):168-73.

Ameliorating adults' acute pain during phlebotomy with a distraction intervention.

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  • 1School of Nursing, University of Texas at Arlington 76019-0467, USA.


This study evaluated the effectiveness of a distraction intervention on subjects' perceptions of pain. During phlebotomy, 96 adults received either usual care or used a kaleidoscope as a distraction. After phlebotomy they rated their level of experienced pain with each of three instruments: Wong-Baker FACES Pain Scale, pain visual analogue scale, and Present Pain Intensity Scale. Statistical analyses revealed significantly lower perceptions of experienced pain among subjects using the kaleidoscope and concurrent validity for using the FACES Pain Scale with adults. Because the distraction intervention is effective, inexpensive, and easy to implement, its routine use during phlebotomy is recommended.

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