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Clin Chim Acta. 1997 Sep 8;265(1):85-97.

1H NMR spectra of normal urines: reference ranges of the major metabolites.

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  • 1Institute di Chimica e Chimica Clinica, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Universit√† Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.


Serial urine samples from 50 normal subjects were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy operating at 300 MHz. Analyses of the spectra have shown the presence of the following metabolites in 100% of the normal subjects: Creatinine, lactate, alanine, citrate, dimethylamine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, glycine and hippurate. Other analytes, such as creatine, valine, betaine, leucine and isoleucine, were sometimes found. All metabolites were quantified on the basis of peak heights and were expressed as mmol/mol of creatinine. The study of metabolic profiles in serial samples allowed us to evaluate intra-individual variability and physiological changes due to feeding. The aim of our report is to define standard conditions for this analytical technique and to calculate confidence intervals for the major metabolites in normal urine samples, such as preliminary and mandatory stages for clinical diagnostic 1H NMR utilization.

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