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J Neurosci Methods. 1997 Sep 5;76(1):71-3.

An electromyographic technique for small animals.

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  • 1Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden, Netherlands.


An improved technique is proposed to record electromyographic (EMG) signals. The technique includes anesthesia with isofluothane and twisted bipolar electrodes that are glued with a sugar solution to longitudinally grinded hypodermic needles. The advantages of the technique are (1) minimal damage to the muscles; (2) removal of the injection needle with ease after insertion into the muscle; (3) the electrodes can be soldered onto the connector prior to the experiment; and (4) quick recovery of the animal. The technique is especially advantageous for EMG experiments with small animals.

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