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J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 10;272(41):25576-82.

Apolipoprotein L, a new human high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein expressed by the pancreas. Identification, cloning, characterization, and plasma distribution of apolipoprotein L.

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  • 1Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0130, USA.


In this study, we have identified and characterized a new protein present in human high density lipoprotein that we have designated apolipoprotein L. Using a combination of liquid-phase isoelectrophoresis and high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, apolipoprotein L was identified and partially sequenced from immunoisolated high density lipoprotein (Lp(A-I)). Expression was only detected in the pancreas. The cDNA sequence encoding the full-length protein was cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The deduced amino acid sequence contains 383 residues, including a typical signal peptide of 12 amino acids. No significant homology was found with known sequences. The plasma protein is a single chain polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa. Antibodies raised against this protein detected a truncated form with a molecular mass of 39 kDa. Both forms were predominantly associated with immunoaffinity-isolated apoA-I-containing lipoproteins and detected mainly in the density range 1.123 < d < 1.21 g/ml. Free apoL was not detected in plasma. Anti-apoL immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify apoL-containing lipoproteins (Lp(L)) directly from plasma. Nondenaturing gel electrophoresis of Lp(L) showed two major molecular species with apparent diameters of 12.2-17 and 10.4-12.2 nm. Moreover, Lp(L) exhibited both pre-beta and alpha electromobility. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, A-IV, and C-III were also detected in the apoL-containing lipoprotein particles.

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