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J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 3;272(40):25267-74.

14-3-3 protein binds to insulin receptor substrate-1, one of the binding sites of which is in the phosphotyrosine binding domain.

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  • 1Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.


Insulin binding to its receptor induces the phosphorylation of cytosolic substrates, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2, which associate with several Src homology-2 domain-containing proteins. To identify unique IRS-1-binding proteins, we screened a human heart cDNA library with 32P-labeled recombinant IRS-1 and obtained two isoforms (epsilon and zeta) of the 14-3-3 protein family. 14-3-3 protein has been shown to associate with IRS-1 in L6 myotubes, HepG2 hepatoma cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and bovine brain tissue. IRS-2, a protein structurally similar to IRS-1, was also shown to form a complex with 14-3-3 protein using a baculovirus expression system. The amount of 14-3-3 protein associated with IRS-1 was not affected by insulin stimulation but was increased significantly by treatment with okadaic acid, a potent serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor. Peptide inhibition experiments using phosphoserine-containing peptides of IRS-1 revealed that IRS-1 contains three putative binding sites for 14-3-3 protein (Ser-270, Ser-374, and Ser-641). Among these three, the motif around Ser-270 is located in the phosphotyrosine binding domain of IRS-1, which is responsible for the interaction with the insulin receptor. Indeed, a truncated mutant of IRS-1 consisting of only the phosphotyrosine binding domain retained the capacity to bind to 14-3-3 protein in vivo. Finally, the effect of 14-3-3 protein binding on the insulin-induced phosphorylation of IRS-1 was investigated. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that IRS-1 coimmunoprecipitated with anti-14-3-3 antibody to be weakly phosphorylated after insulin stimulation, on tyrosine as well as serine residues, compared with IRS-1 immunoprecipitated with anti-IRS-1 antibody. Thus, the association with 14-3-3 protein may play a role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity by interrupting the association between the insulin receptor and IRS-1.

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