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Hum Mutat. 1997;10(1):11-20.

Mutations in the GTP cyclohydrolase I and 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase genes.

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  • 1Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.


Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiencies are highly heterogeneous disorders, with more than 30 molecular lesions identified in the past 2 years in the GTP cyclohydrolase I and 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase genes. The spectrum of mutations causing a reduction of these two biosynthetic enzymes is reviewed. Only three mutations, two present homozygously, are reported in the GTP cyclohydrolase I gene to cause the rare autosomal recessively inherited form of hyperphenylalaninemia. Most of the other mutations, which are scattered over the entire coding region for the six exon-containing GTP cyclohydrolase I gene, are observed in a heterozygous state with the wild-type allele and are associated with the dominant DOPA-responsive dystonia. Compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations spread over all six exons encoding the 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase cause an autosomal recessively inherited variant of hyperphenylalaninemia, mostly accompanied by a deficiency of dopamine and serotonin.

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