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Arch Virol Suppl. 1991;3:79-96.

The pathways for bovine virus diarrhoea virus biotypes in the pathogenesis of disease.

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  • 1AFRC, Institute for Animal Health, Compton Laboratory, Newbury, Berkshire, U.K.

Abstract

BVDV infections of cattle ranges from the transient acute infections, which may be inapparent or mild, to mucosal disease which is inevitably fatal. On occasions the acute infections can lead to clinical episodes of diarrhoea an agalactia but as these syndromes cannot be reproduced experimentally, the pathogenesis remains unclear. The immunosuppressive effect of acute BVDV infections can enhance the clinical disease of other pathogens and this may be an important part of the calf respiratory disease complex. Although BVDV antigen has been demonstrated within the lymphoid tissues, for prolonged periods, the evidence for viral latency remains to be proven. Venereal infection is shown to be important in the transfer of virus to the foetus and congenital infections can cause abortions, malformations and the development of persistently viraemic calves. The two biotypes of BVDV, non-cytopathogenic and cytopathogenic, are described. Their sequential role in the pathogenesis of mucosal disease arises from the initial foetal infection with the non-cytopathogenic virus and the subsequent production of persistently viraemic calves. These calves may later develop mucosal disease as a result of superinfection with a "homologous" cytopathogenic virus and the possible origin of this biotype by mutation is discussed. Chronic disease is defined as a progressive wasting and usually diarrhoeic condition; it is suggested that this may develop following superinfection of persistently viraemic cattle with a "heterologous" cytopathogenic biotype.

PMID:
9210929
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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