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J Clin Invest. 1997 Jun 1;99(11):2719-26.

Circumferential deformation and shear stress induce differential responses in saphenous vein endothelium exposed to arterial flow.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, London W6 8RF, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Adaptation of saphenous vein to the hemodynamic stresses of the arterial circulation is critical to the maturation of vein bypass grafts. We have investigated early adaptive responses of venous endothelium by placing excised human saphenous vein in a bypass circuit with either venous or arterial flow conditions, using external stenting to resolve the effects of longitudinal (shear) from circumferential stress. Endothelial protein concentrations were assessed by immunostaining area (ratio of protein/CD31) and Western blotting of endothelial cell lysates (staining ratio protein/vWf). In both unstented and stented veins nitric oxide synthase increased after 90 min of arterial flow: twofold increase of immunostaining area (P = 0.001), four- to fivefold increase by Western blotting (P = 0.02), and increased A23187mediated maximum endothelium-dependent relaxation of vein rings (P = 0.01). In unstented veins, ICAM-1 concentration was increased after 45 min of arterial flow: twofold increase by immunostaining (P = 0.001) and Western blotting (P = 0.038), with maximum fibrinogen-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation increasing from 55.9+/-4.9 to 97+/-2.1% (P = 0.01). In contrast, in unstented veins there was a threefold decrease of VCAM-1 and no change in P-selectin after arterial flow for 45 and 90 min, respectively. However, no changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were observed in stented veins. The flow-induced alterations in nitric oxide synthase, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were abolished when 3 mM tetraethylammonium ion (K+ channel blocker) was included in the vein perfusate. The very rapid changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression are a response to circumferential stress, whereas the slower upregulation of nitric oxide synthase is a response to longitudinal (shear) stress. Similar changes could influence the adhesiveness of endothelium in newly implanted saphenous vein bypass grafts.

PMID:
9169502
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC508118
Free PMC Article
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