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J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Jun;35(6):1332-6.

Comparative analysis of genetic variability among Candida albicans isolates from different geographic locales by three genotypic methods.

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  • 1California Institute for Medical Research, Department of Medicine, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose 95128-2699, USA.


The objective of the present study was to conduct a comparative genotypic analysis of Candida albicans isolates from the United States, Europe, and Southeast Asia to determine whether differences between isolates might be associated with geographic locations. The genotypes of 86 unrelated isolates of C. albicans (from the United States and Europe) and 26 isolates from Singapore were examined by three DNA typing methods. Computer-assisted methods were used to analyze the gel patterns for all isolates. A dendrogram based on the overall similarity of the patterns obtained by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) with EcoRI clustered the U.S. and European isolates into two major groups (groups A and B). The Singaporean isolates demonstrated unique REA profiles, with nine isolates having both or neither of the REA-characteristic 3.7- and 4.2-kb bands present in groups A and B. By REA profiles, the Singaporean isolates were related to each other with similarity values (S(AB)s) of > 0.80, but only one isolate mixed with the U.S. and European isolates at this S(AB) (an arbitrary threshold for genetic similarity). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis generated DNA profiles that clustered the C. albicans isolates into approximately the same number of distinct typing groups as REA. However, isolates identical to each other by REA were generally different from each other by RAPD analysis. In a composite dendrogram prepared from the results obtained by RAPD analysis, the isolates from the United States and Europe clustered in major groups with S(AB)s of > 0.85, while Singaporean isolates connected to these clusters at S(AB)s of > or = 0.75. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was less discriminatory, discerning about one-third as many distinct subtypes as REA or RAPD analysis; the Singaporean isolates were distributed randomly with the U.S. and European isolates. These results suggest that a high degree of genetic diversity exists between C. albicans isolates from Southeast Asia and those from the United States and Europe.

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