Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
AIDS. 1997 Mar;11(3):339-45.

The HIV epidemic in Zambia: socio-demographic prevalence patterns and indications of trends among childbearing women.

Author information

  • 1Epidemiology and Research Unit, National AIDS, STD, TB & Leprosy Programme, Lusaka, Zambia.



To examine socio-demographic HIV prevalence patterns and trends among childbearing women in Zambia.


Repeated cross-sectional surveys.


Personal interviews and unlinked anonymous testing of blood samples of women attending antenatal care in selected areas.


The 1994 data includes information from 27 areas and a total of 11,517 women. The HIV prevalence among urban residents appeared with moderate variation at a very high level (range 25-32%, comparing provinces). The geographical variation was more prominent in rural populations (range 8-16%) and was approximately half the prevalence level of the urban populations. With the exception of the 15-19 years age-group, HIV infection was found to rise sharply with increasing educational attainment (odds ratio, 3.1; confidence interval, 2.6-3.8) when contrasting extreme educational levels. Although the assessment of trends is somewhat restricted, the available information indicates stable prevalence levels in most populations over the last 2-4 years.


The data showed extremely high HIV prevalence levels among childbearing women. Longer time-intervals between surveys are needed, however, in order to verify the stability in prevalence identified by this study. The tendency to changing differentials by social status is suggested as a possible sign of an ongoing process of significant behavioural change.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk