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EMBO J. 1997 Mar 17;16(6):1173-80.

Characterization of the iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-binding sites of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase.

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  • 1Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oulu, Finland.


Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (EC, an alpha2beta2 tetramer, catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline in collagens. We converted 16 residues in the human alpha subunit individually to other amino acids, and expressed the mutant polypeptides together with the wild-type beta subunit in insect cells. Asp414Ala and Asp414Asn inactivated the enzyme completely, whereas Asp414Glu increased the K(m) for Fe2+ 15-fold and that for 2-oxoglutarate 5-fold. His412Glu, His483Glu and His483Arg inactivated the tetramer completely, as did Lys493Ala and Lys493His, whereas Lys493Arg increased the K(m) for 2-oxoglutarate 15-fold. His501Arg, His501Lys, His501Asn and His501Gln reduced the enzyme activity by 85-95%; all these mutations increased the K(m) for 2-oxoglutarate 2- to 3-fold and enhanced the rate of uncoupled decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate as a percentage of the rate of the complete reaction up to 12-fold. These and other data indicate that His412, Asp414 and His483 provide the three ligands required for the binding of Fe2+ to a catalytic site, while Lys493 provides the residue required for binding of the C-5 carboxyl group of 2-oxoglutarate. His501 is an additional critical residue at the catalytic site, probably being involved in both the binding of the C-1 carboxyl group of 2-oxoglutarate and the decarboxylation of this cosubstrate.

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