Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1251-6.

p-Benzoquinone, a reactive metabolite of benzene, prevents the processing of pre-interleukins-1 alpha and -1 beta to active cytokines by inhibition of the processing enzymes, calpain, and interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107. IEA1347@tjuvm.tjuvm.edu

Abstract

Chronic exposure of humans of benzene affects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and leads to aplastic anemia. The stromal macrophage, a target of benzene toxicity, secretes interleukin-1 (IL-1), which induces the stromal fibroblast to synthesize hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors. In a mouse model, benzene causes an acute marrow hypocellularity that can be prevented by the concomitant administration of IL-1 alpha. The ability of benzene to interfere with the production and secretion of IL-1 alpha was tested. Stromal macrophages from benzene-treated mice were capable of the transcription to the IL-1 alpha gene and the translation of the message but showed an inability to process the 34-kDa pre-IL-1 alpha precursor to the 17-kDa biologically active cytokine. Treatment of normal murine stromal macrophages in culture with hydroquinone (HQ) also showed an inhibition in processing of pre-IL-1 alpha. Hydroquinone is oxidized by a peroxidase-mediated reaction in the stromal macrophage to p-benzoquinone, which interacts with the sulfhydryl (SH) groups of proteins and was shown to completely inhibit the activity of calpain, the SH-dependent protease that cleaves pre-IL-1 alpha. In a similar manner, HQ, via peroxidase oxidation to p-benzoquinone, was capable of preventing the IL-1 beta autocrine stimulation of growth of human B1 myeloid tumor cells by preventing the processing of pre-IL-1 beta to mature cytokine. Benzoquinone was also shown to completely inhibit the ability of the SH-dependent IL-1 beta converting enzyme. Thus benzene-induced bone marrow hypocellularity may result from apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells brought about by lack of essential cytokines and deficient IL-1 alpha production subsequent to the inhibition of calpain by p-benzoquinone and the prevention of pre-IL-1 processing.

PMID:
9118901
PMCID:
PMC1469767
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk