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Circulation. 1997 Mar 18;95(6):1611-22.

A novel method for nonfluoroscopic catheter-based electroanatomical mapping of the heart. In vitro and in vivo accuracy results.

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  • 1Cardiovascular System Laboratory, Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.



Cardiac mapping is essential for understanding the mechanisms of arrhythmias and for directing curative procedures. A major limitation of the current methods is the inability to accurately relate local electrograms to their spatial orientation. The objective of this study was to present and test the accuracy of a new method for nonfluoroscopic, catheter-based, endocardial mapping.


The method is based on using a new locatable catheter connected to an endocardial mapping and navigating system. The system uses magnetic technology to accurately determine the location and orientation of the catheter and simultaneously records the local electrogram from its tip. By sampling a plurality of endocardial sites, the system reconstructs the three-dimensional geometry of the chamber, with the electrophysiological information color-coded and superimposed on the anatomy. The accuracy of the system was tested in both in vitro and in vivo studies and was found to be highly reproducible (SD, 0.16 +/- 0.02 [mean +/- SEM] and 0.74 +/- 0.13 mm) and accurate (mean errors, 0.42 +/- 0.05 and 0.73 +/- 0.03 mm). In further studies, electroanatomical mapping of the cardiac chambers was performed in 34 pigs. Both the geometry and activation sequence were repeatable in all pigs.


The new mapping method is highly accurate and reproducible. The ability to combine electrophysiological and spatial information provides a unique tool for both research and clinical electrophysiology. Consequently, the main shortcomings of conventional mapping-namely, prolonged x-ray exposure, low spatial resolution, and the inability to accurately navigate to a predefined site-can all be overcome with this new method.

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