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Plant Cell. 1997 Mar;9(3):425-39.

The Arabidopsis NIM1 protein shows homology to the mammalian transcription factor inhibitor I kappa B.

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  • 1Biotechnology and Genomics Center, Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709-2257, USA.


The NIM1 (for noninducible immunity) gene product is involved in the signal transduction cascade leading to both systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and gene-for-gene disease resistance in Arabidopsis. We have isolated and characterized five new alleles of nim1 that show a range of phenotypes from weakly impaired in chemically induced pathogenesis-related protein-1 gene expression and fungal resistance to very strongly blocked. We have isolated the NIM1 gene by using a map-based cloning procedure. Interestingly, the NIM1 protein shows sequence homology to the mammalian signal transduction factor I kappa B subclass alpha. NF-kappa B/I kappa B signaling pathways are implicated in disease resistance responses in a range of organisms from Drosophila to mammals, suggesting that the SAR signaling pathway in plants is representative of an ancient and ubiquitous defense mechanism in higher organisms.

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