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J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1997 Apr;25(4):253-63.

Intraexaminer reliability, interexaminer reliability, and mean values for nine lower extremity skeletal measures in healthy naval midshipmen.

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  • 1United States Navy, Physical Therapy Department, Naval Hospital, Great Lakes, IL, USA.


Physical therapists, athletic trainers, and other health care professionals commonly evaluate static postures and dynamic motions in patients with skeletal malalignments of the lower extremity. Accurate clinical evaluation of these malalignments depends on reliable and valid measures as well as established normal values. The purpose of this study was to document the intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability and mean values for nine static lower extremity skeletal measures in healthy Naval midshipmen. The measures studied were femoral torsion, ankle dorsiflexion, tibial length, leg length discrepancy, genu varus/valgus, medial talonavicular joint bulge, rearfoot angle, arch angle, and foot type classification. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability ICCs ranged between .65 and .97, and percentage agreements ranged between 88.8 and 94.4%. Mean absolute difference values all were within acceptable limits for clinical measurement. A foot type classification scheme was suggested. The results of this study indicate that the measures investigated are reliable when conducted on healthy Naval midshipmen by experienced examiners. Suggestions for further research are offered.

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