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Q J Exp Psychol A. 1997 Feb;50(1):1-24.

Transfer across form and modality in implicit and explicit memory.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Reading, U.K.


Three experiments examined transfer across form (words/pictures) and modality (visual/auditory) in written word, auditory word, and pictorial implicit memory tests, as well as on a free recall task. Experiment I showed no significant transfer across form on any of the three implicit memory tests, and an asymmetric pattern of transfer across modality. In contrast, the free recall results revealed a very different picture. Experiment 2 further investigated the asymmetric modality effects obtained for the implicit memory measures by employing articulatory suppression and picture naming to control the generation of phonological codes. Finally, Experiment 3 examined the effects of overt word naming and covert picture labelling on transfer between study and test form. The results of the experiments are discussed in relation to Tulving and Schacter's (1990) Perceptual Representation Systems framework and Roediger's (1990) Transfer Appropriate Processing theory.

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