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J Clin Oncol. 1997 Feb;15(2):790-5.

Initial clinical trial of a selective retinoid X receptor ligand, LGD1069.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.



The retinoid response is mediated by nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid "X" receptors (RXRs). All-trans retinoic acid (RA) binds only RARs, while 9-cis RA is an agonist for both RARs and RXRs. Recently, LGD1069 was identified as a highly selective RXR agonist with low affinity for RARs. We undertook a dose-ranging study to examine the safety, clinical tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of LGD1069 in patients with advanced cancer.


Fifty-two patients received. LGD1069 administered orally once daily at doses that ranged from 5 to 500 mg/m2 for 1 to 41 weeks. Treatment proceeded from a starting dose of 5 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed on selected patients on days 1, 15, and 29.


Reversible, asymptomatic increases in liver biochemical tests were the most common dose-limiting adverse effect. Less prominent reactions included leukopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercalcemia. Characteristic retinoid toxicities, such as cheilitis, headache, and myalgias/arthralgias, were mild or absent. Two patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma experienced major antitumor responses. Pharmacokinetic studies obtained in 27 patients at eight dose levels showed that the day 1 area under the plasma concentration-times-time curves (AUCs) were proportional to dose. At all doses studied, the day 1 AUCs were similar to those on days 15 and 29, indicating a lack of induced metabolism.


LGD1069 is a unique compound that exploits a newly identified pathway of retinoid receptor biology that may be relevant to tumor-cell proliferation and apoptosis. Further investigation of this drug is warranted. Based on the results of this study, a dose of 300 mg/m2 is recommended for single-agent trials.

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