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Immunol Res. 1997 Feb;16(1):71-84.

CD28/B7 regulation of autoimmune diabetes.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago 60612, USA.


The initiation and progression of autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), are complex processes that depend on autoantigen exposure, genetic susceptibility, and secondary events that promote autoaggression. T-cell costimulation, largely mediated by CD28/B7 interactions, is a major regulatory pathway in the activation and differentiation of T-cells that cause IDDM in murine models. In this article, we summarize our results in two models of IDDM: the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and diabetes induced with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MDSDM). In both of these models, blockade of CD28/B7 costimulation regulates the development of disease. The effects of blockade vary with the intensity of cognate signal delivered to the T-cells, the timing of the costimulatory signal, and perhaps even the CD28 ligand expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Our results suggest that targeting CD28/B7 signals is a feasible approach for treatment and prevention of recurrence of autoimmune diabetes. However, the dynamic nature of these interactions highlights the importance of a clear understanding of their role in regulation of the disease.

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