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Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Jan 15;25(2):311-7.

Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa cells in vivo and in vitro.

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  • 1Gaubius Laboratory, TNO-PG, PO Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human endothelial cells and HeLa cells is stimulated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at the level of transcription. To study the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, we have characterized a segment of the t-PA gene extending from -135 to +100 by in vivo footprinting analysis [dimethyl sulphate (DMS) method] and gel mobility shift assay. In vivo footprinting analysis revealed changes in cleavage pattern in five distinct promoter elements in both endothelial cells and HeLa cells, including a PMA-responsive element (TRE), a CTF/NF-1 binding site and three GC-boxes, and an altered cleavage pattern of the TRE and CTF/NF-1 element after PMA treatment of HeLa cells. Although endothelial cells and HeLa cells differed in the exact G residues protected by nuclear proteins,in vitro bandshift analysis showed that nuclear protein binding to the t-PA promoter was qualitatively and quantitatively very similar in both cell types, except for the TRE. Protein binding to the TRE under non- stimulated conditions was much higher in human endothelial cells than in HeLa cells, and this TRE-bound protein showed a lower dissociation rate in the endothelial cells than in HeLa cells. In endothelial cells, the proteins bound to the TRE consisted mainly of the AP-1 family members JunD and Fra-2, while in HeLa cells predominantly JunD, FosB and Fra-2 were bound. The proteins bound to the other protected promoter elements were identified as SP-1 (GC-box II and III) and CTF/NF-1 (CTF/NF-1 binding site). After PMA treatment of the cells, AP-1 and SP-1 binding was increased two-fold in endothelial cell nuclear extracts and >20-fold in HeLa nuclear extracts. In the endothelial cells, all Jun and Fos forms (c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2) were part of the AP-1 complex after PMA induction. In HeLa cells, the complex consisted predominantly of c-Jun and the Fos family members FosB and Fra-2. In the light of previous studies involving mutational analysis of the human and murine t-PA promoter our results underline an important role of the five identified promoter regions in basal and PMA-stimulated t-PA gene expression in intact human endothelial cells and HeLa cells. The small differences in DMS protection pattern and differences in the individual AP-1 components bound in endothelial cells and HeLa cells point to subtle cell-type specific differences in t-PA gene regulation.

PMID:
9016559
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC146448
Free PMC Article
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