Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Jan 15;25(2):311-7.

Cell-type specific DNA-protein interactions at the tissue-type plasminogen activator promoter in human endothelial and HeLa cells in vivo and in vitro.

Author information

  • 1Gaubius Laboratory, TNO-PG, PO Box 2215, 2301 CE Leiden, The Netherlands.


Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human endothelial cells and HeLa cells is stimulated by the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at the level of transcription. To study the mechanism of transcriptional regulation, we have characterized a segment of the t-PA gene extending from -135 to +100 by in vivo footprinting analysis [dimethyl sulphate (DMS) method] and gel mobility shift assay. In vivo footprinting analysis revealed changes in cleavage pattern in five distinct promoter elements in both endothelial cells and HeLa cells, including a PMA-responsive element (TRE), a CTF/NF-1 binding site and three GC-boxes, and an altered cleavage pattern of the TRE and CTF/NF-1 element after PMA treatment of HeLa cells. Although endothelial cells and HeLa cells differed in the exact G residues protected by nuclear proteins,in vitro bandshift analysis showed that nuclear protein binding to the t-PA promoter was qualitatively and quantitatively very similar in both cell types, except for the TRE. Protein binding to the TRE under non- stimulated conditions was much higher in human endothelial cells than in HeLa cells, and this TRE-bound protein showed a lower dissociation rate in the endothelial cells than in HeLa cells. In endothelial cells, the proteins bound to the TRE consisted mainly of the AP-1 family members JunD and Fra-2, while in HeLa cells predominantly JunD, FosB and Fra-2 were bound. The proteins bound to the other protected promoter elements were identified as SP-1 (GC-box II and III) and CTF/NF-1 (CTF/NF-1 binding site). After PMA treatment of the cells, AP-1 and SP-1 binding was increased two-fold in endothelial cell nuclear extracts and >20-fold in HeLa nuclear extracts. In the endothelial cells, all Jun and Fos forms (c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2) were part of the AP-1 complex after PMA induction. In HeLa cells, the complex consisted predominantly of c-Jun and the Fos family members FosB and Fra-2. In the light of previous studies involving mutational analysis of the human and murine t-PA promoter our results underline an important role of the five identified promoter regions in basal and PMA-stimulated t-PA gene expression in intact human endothelial cells and HeLa cells. The small differences in DMS protection pattern and differences in the individual AP-1 components bound in endothelial cells and HeLa cells point to subtle cell-type specific differences in t-PA gene regulation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk