Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Diabetes. 1997 Feb;46(2):237-43.

Systemic bias of cytokine production toward cell-mediated immune regulation in IDDM and toward humoral immunity in Graves' disease.

Author information

  • 1Clinical Department of the Diabetes Research Institute, Heinrich-Heine-University of Dusseldorf, Germany.


Disturbed immune regulation has been postulated to be crucial in the pathogenesis of IDDM and other autoimmune or allergic diseases. We therefore tested the hypothesis of a general bias in the peripheral immune system in patients with recent-onset IDDM or Graves' disease in comparison to healthy control subjects by studying whole blood cultures stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Cells from IDDM patients (n = 53) produced significantly higher amounts of Th1 cytokines gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) (P = 0.028) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) (P = 0.007) than normal control subjects (n = 56), while Th2 cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-10) were similar. Low levels of islet cell antibodies (ICAs) in IDDM patients were associated with high levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Antibodies to GAD, ICA512, or insulin did not correlate with individual cytokine profiles. Also, HLA-DQ types did not significantly correlate with either Th1 or Th2 cytokine production. Conversely, whole blood cultures from patients with Graves' disease (n = 18) produced significantly less TNF-alpha and IL-4 than normal subjects (P = 0.001-0.006). However, when the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokine production was analyzed in individuals, the ratio between IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha and IL-4 or IL-10 was clearly biased toward Th1 reactivity in patients with IDDM (P = 0.0001), while a dominance of Th2 cytokine production was seen in Graves' disease (P = 0.0001). The ratio of counterregulatory cytokines appeared to be the most reliable marker of the individual disease process. This study provides first evidence of a systemic bias in the immune regulation of humans, which might be either toward cell-mediated immunity (Th1) in IDDM or humoral immunity (Th2) in Graves' disease.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk