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Circulation. 1997 Jan 7;95(1):46-52.

Antagonists of the mannose receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein dramatically delay the clearance of tissue plasminogen activator.

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  • 1Division of Biopharmaceutics, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, University of Leiden, The Netherlands.



Clinical application of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) as a fibrinolytic agent is complicated by its rapid clearance from the bloodstream, which is caused by TPA liver uptake. The mannose receptor on endothelial liver cells and the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) on parenchymal liver cells were reported to contribute to liver uptake.


In this study, we addressed whether TPA clearance can be delayed by inhibiting receptor-mediated endocytosis of TPA. A series of cluster mannosides was synthesized, and their affinity for the mannose receptor was determined. A cluster mannoside carrying six mannose groups (M6L5) displayed a subnanomolar affinity for the mannose receptor (Ki = 0.41 +/- 0.09 nmol/L). Preinjection of M6L5 (1.2 mg/kg) reduced the clearance of 125I-TPA in rats by 60% because of specific inhibition of the endothelial cell uptake. The low toxicity of M6L5, combined with its accessible synthesis and high specificity for the mannose receptor, makes it a promising agent to improve the pharmacokinetics of TPA. Blockade of LRP by 39-kD receptor-associated protein (GST-RAP) also inhibited TPA clearance by 60%. Finally, combined preinjection of M6L5 and GST-RAP almost completely abolished reduced liver uptake of TPA and delayed its clearance by a factor of 10.


It can be concluded that (1) the mannose receptor and LRP appear to be the sole major receptors responsible for TPA clearance and (2) therapeutic levels of TPA can be maintained for a prolonged time span by coadministration of the aforementioned receptor antagonists.

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