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Ann Plast Surg. 1996 Dec;37(6):669-75.

Neovaginoplasty in male transsexuals: review of surgical techniques and recommendations regarding eligibility.

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  • 1Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Academisch Ziekenhuis Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


The surgical aim of genital reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexuals is to create a perineogenital complex as feminine in appearance and function as possible. In this paper, we present a review of the various methods to line the neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals. These methods may be classified in five categories involving, respectively, application of nongenital skin grafts, penile skin grafts, penile skin flaps, nongenital skin flaps, and pedicled intestinal transplants. Based on this review and our extensive personal experience, we come to certain recommendations regarding the eligibility of these methods.

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